Although the function of MR imaging in the evaluation of musculoskeletal tumors has traditionally been to help identify the extent of disease prior to treatment, its role continues to evolve as new techniques emerge.
In an article in the October issue of Radiology (RSNA.org/Radiology), Laura M. Fayad, M.D., of Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions in Baltimore, and colleagues discuss a multiparametric approach to evaluating musculoskeletal tumors, focusing on the utility and potential added value of pulse sequences in helping establish a diagnosis, assess pretreatment extent and evaluate tumors in the post-treatment setting for recurrence and treatment response.
The authors discuss anatomic, functional and metabolic imaging protocols, including chemical shift MR imaging (in-phase and opposed-phase imaging), diffusion-weighted imaging, perfusion imaging and MR spectroscopy, T1-weighted and fluid-sensitive sequences.
"Although conventional T1-weighted and fluid-sensitive sequences are entirely sufficient to enable determination of the location and extent of a musculoskeletal lesion, quantitative methods now provide metrics that may advance the role of MR imaging to include detection, characterization, and reliable assessment of treatment response," the authors write.
The appearance of the normal reproductive tract on radiologic images changes dramatically over the female patient’s life span, reflecting the influence of hormones on these organs.
In an article in the October special issue of RadioGraphics (RSNA.org/RadioGraphics), Jill E. Langer, M.D., of the University of Pennsylvania, and colleagues describe expected findings and physiologic changes in the normal female reproductive tract from birth through postmenopausal years, with an emphasis on the appearances of the uterus and ovaries at pelvic ultrasound, CT and MR imaging.
Whether the female pelvis is imaged because of a suspicion of underlying gynecologic disease or as a screening examination in the asymptomatic patient, radiologists should be familiar with the range of normal appearances in these organs to avoid misinterpreting expected physiologic changes as pathologic conditions and to spare the patient unnecessary additional imaging and surgical or other invasive procedures, according to the authors.
"A thorough knowledge of how hormonal changes affect the appearance of the uterus and ovaries at pelvic imaging performed in childhood, during the reproductive years, after delivery, and in menopause is important for differentiating expected physiologic changes from pathologic conditions," they write.
This article meets the critera for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. CME is available in print and online.
Contact the editor
Join a global community of leaders in the radiologic sciences.
Continue your education with top-quality learning resources.
Witness the world's premier event in medical imaging, Nov 30 - Dec 5.