CT is feasible for virtually preparing a CT dataset to separate fossilized bone from its surrounding sediment matrix and produce a 3D print, new research shows.
René Schilling, M.D., of the Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, and colleagues performed CT on an unprepared fossil from the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, using a 320-slice multidetector unit. Researchers used a marching cube–based method to transform the voxel CT dataset into triangle-based, editable geometry, and then performed comprehensive postprocessing to isolate the geometry of the vertebra from its surrounding fossilized matrix. Finally, the resulting polygon mesh describing only the vertebra was used for a physical 3D reconstruction by using a selective laser sintering machine.
The CT examination provided enough data to assign the fossil to the genus Plateosaurus along with valuable information about the fossil—in particular the visualization of multiple fractures and the destruction of the anterior rim of the vertebral body. The 3D print may be considered an accurate copy of the bone with the unprepared fossil.
“The authors demonstrated the feasibility and potential utility of combining CT with 3D printing, providing a nondestructive method to future paleontologists,” they write.
Younger patient age is a significant predictor of decreased short-term quality of life related to percutaneous breast biopsy procedures, according to new research. Tailored prebiopsy counseling may better prepare women for percutaneous biopsy procedures and improve their experience, researchers discovered.
Kathryn L. Humphrey, M.D., of the Massachusetts General Hospital Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, and colleagues recruited 188 women undergoing percutaneous breast biopsy in an academic medical center to participate in a mixed-mode survey 2–4 days after biopsy. Patients described their biopsy experience by using the Testing Morbidities Index (TMI), a validated instrument for assessing short-term quality of life related to diagnostic testing. The scale ranged from 0 (worst possible experience) to 100 (no adverse effects).
The women ranging in age from 22 to 80 years had a mean TMI score of 82 out of 100. Patient age was the only significant independent predictor of the TMI score, which decreased by approximately three points for every decade decrease in patient age. The mean TMI score for women less than 40 years old was 76.4.
“Tailored prebiopsy counseling may better prepare women for percutaneous biopsy procedures and improve their experience,” the authors write.
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) involves altered structural connectivity in a network that reaches beyond the temporal lobe, especially in the default mode network, new research shows.
Matthew N. DeSalvo, M.D., of the Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charleston, Mass., and colleagues analyzed 60 direction diffusion-tensor imaging and magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MP-RAGE) MR imaging volumes in 24 patients with left TLE and in 24 healthy control subjects. MP-RAGE volumes were segmented into 1,015 regions of interest (ROIs) spanning the entire brain.
Patients with TLE had 22–45 percent reduced (P < .01) distant connectivity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, temporal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus compared with healthy subjects. However, local connectivity, as measured by means of network efficiency, was increased by 85 percent to 270 percent (P < .01) in the medial and lateral frontal cortices, insular cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and occipital cortex in patients with TLE compared with healthy subjects.
“TLE involves alterations in structure beyond the medial temporal lobe, especially in the DMN, that may provide a noninvasive biomarker for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy monitoring in patients with TLE,” the authors write.
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