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  • Journal Highlights

    December 01, 2013

    The following are highlights from the current issues of RSNA’s two peer-reviewed journals.

    The characteristic pathologic features of Alzheimer disease (AD)
    (Click to enlarge) The characteristic pathologic features of Alzheimer disease (AD) originally described by (A) Alois Alzheimer; (1864–1915) in 1907, still considered essential for neuropathologic diagnosis; (B) senile plaques and (C) neurofibrillary tangles. (B) Note typical appearance of neocortical plaques with staining (hematoxylin-eosin stain; original magnification, 3200), and increased cellularity around the plaques, which consists primarily of reactive astrocytes. (C) Note typical appearance of a neurofibrillary tangle in a pyramidal neuron of the hippocampus (hematoxylin-eosin stain; original magnification, 3600). The tangle (arrow) appears as a circumscribed inclusion that extends from the cell body into the apical dendrite. (Reprinted, with permission, from reference 101.).
    (Radiology 2013;269;3:671–691) ©RSNA, 2013. All rights reserved. Printed with permission. 

    Radiology
    Neuroimaging and the Search for a Cure for Alzheimer Disease

    Biomarkers and neuroimaging have great potential to increase the power of clinical trials for Alzheimer disease (AD) through greater effect by matching imaging methodology with therapeutic mechanism.

    Radiologists can play a role in biomarker development, treatment monitoring in clinical trials and ultimately, in development of accurate diagnostic tests for patient care, according to a study in the December issue of Radiology (RSNA.org/Radiology) led by Jeffrey Petrella, M.D., of Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C. Researchers describe the progress made toward developing treatments designed to significantly slow or halt the progression of AD as well as a means of early identification of patients who may be candidates for such interventions. The authors also discuss:

    • The multinational Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)
    • Biomarkers and clinical trials of AD therapeutics
    • Radiologists’ role in clinical care and trials
    • Beyond clinical care and trials: uncovering the pathophysiology of AD and other dementias

    “In addition to a critical role in trials, structural, molecular, and functional imaging techniques can give us a window on the etiology of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases,” the authors write. “This combination of developments has potential to bring diagnostic radiology to the forefront in AD research, therapeutic trials, and patient care.”

    This article meets the criteria for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. SA-CME is available online only. 
     Engorged vasa recta
    (Click to enlarge) Engorged vasa recta coursing perpendicular to the imaging plane. Axial CT enterographic image in a 16-year-old boy with Crohn disease shows the vasa recta to be increased in size and number, giving the appearance of multiple dots (arrows). Segments of bowel with mucosal hyperenhancement, mural stratification, and bowel wall thickening are also seen.
    (RadioGraphics 2013;33;7: 1843–1863) ©RSNA, 2013. All rights reserved. Printed with permission.  

    Radiographics
    CT and MR Enterography in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Although CT enterography and MR enterography have become the imaging modalities of choice for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), each has advantages and disadvantages in terms of diagnosing pediatric IBD.

    In an article in the November-December issue of RadioGraphics (RSNA.org/RadioGraphics), Alexander J. Towbin, M.D., of Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, and colleagues discuss the use of CT enterography and MR enterography in the context of pediatric IBD in terms of advantages and disadvantages, protocol and imaging findings.

    Although CT enterography has many advantages over other radiologic and endoscopic modalities, its main disadvantage is its reliance on ionizing radiation. This has limited its use and has helped MR enterography become the primary method of evaluating the pediatric bowel. In addition to being radiation free, MR enterography can help evaluate peristalsis, has high contrast resolution and allows the use of diffusion-weighted imaging.

    CT enterography and MR enterography are similar imaging tests, each capable of helping identify IBD in a sensitive and specific manner, according to the authors.

    “We have been able to perform CT enterography and MR enterography reliably in children as young as 2 years of age,” the authors write. “Because the findings of pediatric IBD mirror those of adult disease in many ways, radiologists are able to interpret intestinal and extraintestinal findings in a wide range of patients.”

    This study features an Invited Commentary by Jonathan R. Dillman, M.D., University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, Ann Arbor. 

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Discounted Dues: Eligible North American Countries 
Belize
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatamala
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Netherlands Antilles
Nicaragua
Panama
St.Lucia
St. Vincent & Grenadines
Country    Country    Country 
Afghanistan   Grenada   Pakistan
Albania   Guatemala   Papua New Guinea
Algeria   Guinea   Paraguay
Angola   Guinea-Bissau   Peru
Armenia   Guyana   Phillippines
Azerbaijan   Haiti   Rwanda
Bangladesh   Honduras   Samoa
Belarus   India   Sao Tome & Principe
Belize   Indonesia   Senegal
Benin   Iran   Serbia
Bhutan   Iraq   Sierra Leone
Bolivia   Jordan   Solomon Islands
Bosnia & Herzegovina   Jamaica   Somalia
Botswana   Kenya   South Africa
Bulgaria   Kiribati   South Sudan
Burkina Faso   Korea, Dem Rep (North)   Sri Lanka
Burundi   Kosovo   St Lucia
Cambodia   Kyrgyzstan   St Vincent & Grenadines
Cameroon   Laos\Lao PDR   Sudan
Cape Verde   Lesotho   Swaziland
Central African Republic   Liberia   Syria
Chad   Macedonia   Tajikistan
China   Madagascar   Tanzania
Colombia   Malawi   Thailand
Comoros   Maldives   Timor-Leste
Congo, Dem. Rep.   Mali   Togo
Congo, Republic of   Marshall Islands   Tonga
Cote d'Ivoire   Mauritania   Tunisia
Djibouti   Micronesia, Fed. Sts.   Turkmenistan
Dominica   Moldova   Tuvalu
Domicican Republic   Mongolia   Uganda
Ecuador   Montenegro   Ukraine
Egypt   Morocco   Uzbekistan
El Salvador   Mozambique   Vanuatu
Eritrea   Myanmar   Vietnam
Ethiopia   Namibia   West Bank & Gaza
Fiji   Nepal   Yemen
Gambia, The   Nicaragua   Zambia
Georgia   Niger   Zimbabwe
Ghana   Nigeria    

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