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  • 2006 Report of the RSNA Historian

  • Current research shows an advantage of digital mammography over film-screen mammography in women with dense breasts. New areas of research include tomosynthesis using digital mammography for evaluation of breast masses in dense breasts and digital subtraction techniques using digital mammography for evaluation breast masses. Ultrasound guided cryoablation of small breast cancers and extracorporeal ultrasonic ablation of small breast cancers are being investigated for the treatment of breast cancer.

    Abdominal CT imaging continues to expand and to displace barium studies and excretory urography. Multiplanar displays and postprocessing of the data generate a great number of images to be assessed resulting in a load for the radiologist. Spectroscopy of abdominal structures is in an early stage.

    Cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation of liver and renal tumors are becoming the standard of care. Intraarterial embolization with radioactive materials is another option for inoperable lesions. Stenting for arteriosclerotic lesions below the inguinal ligament is showing improved results. In larger arteries and veins, aspiration of clots has become common and atherectomy catheters are coming into use.

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound studies of joint impingement in shoulder and hip and of lesions of the brachial plexus have enjoyed increased popularity. There is more use of 3T for MR examination of the knee. The artifacts associated with prostheses at CT are reduced with the newer CT techniques and are avoided by use of MR. Image-guided radiofrequency ablation has been employed for primary lesions such as osteoid osteoma and for some secondary lesions.

    With improvement in instrumentation, 35–50% of cerebral aneurysms are treated with endovascular coils. The use of temporary balloons and permanent stents permits treatment of even wide necked aneurysms with coils. Angioplasty and stent placement for intracranial atherosclerotic lesions with new instruments is now FDA approved.

    Neuroimaging at 3T provides excellent anatomical detail. The ability to image physiological processes has been facilitated by diffusion and perfusion studies and by blood oxygen level dependence functional MR imaging (BOLD fMRI imaging). Diffusion weighted (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) display the 3 dimensional movement of free water. DTI is useful in evaluating integrity of white matter and structural changes in the brain in development, aging and disease. Treatment of acute stroke is assisted by the use of BOLD and PWI (perfusion weighted imaging) as this allows identification of tissue at risk of infarction. fMRI has become a routine tool for mapping task-related activity for presurgical planning and for psychological studies. Proton MR spectroscopy is informative in metabolic diseases and in a variety of other conditions.

    Nuclear radiologists are increasing the utilization of SPECT-CT as the new instruments become available. Skeletal applications have predominated but there is utilization for many organ systems. The utilization of PET-CT is also growing.

    Pediatric radiologists continue to use the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) concept in minimizing the dose from and the use of cross sectional studies.
    Radiation burden and dose reduction are subjects of current reemphasis both in the professional sphere and in the public press. So many images can be produced so quickly that particular attention to the need to minimize dose for a study and to minimize the number of studies is apparent.

    The use of 64 section imagers in a variety of cardiac problems is developing. Coronary arteries are better displayed using this equipment. As with other emerging technologies, the proper role for coronary CT is to be determined. Computer-assisted detection of pulmonary lesions is in limited clinical use. Low dose CT scanning of patients at risk for lung cancer is being explored.

    Real-time 3D ultrasound (4D) is on the horizon but very close to clinical application. Multiplanar reconstructions will be enabled.
    Although recent reports suggest that the shortage of radiologists is less acute this year than in other recent times, the current predominating opinion is that we should be expanding our programs to train more radiologists. Radiology continues to attract top students.

    Legislation under consideration by the Congress, in present form, would very negatively impact remuneration for radiological services; it is hoped that there will be substantial improvements in this legislation before final passage.

    It has been an honor and a pleasure to have served as RSNA Historian.

    William R. Eyler, M.D.
    RSNA Historian
     

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Discounted Dues: Eligible North American Countries 
Belize
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatamala
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Netherlands Antilles
Nicaragua
Panama
St.Lucia
St. Vincent & Grenadines
Country    Country    Country 
Afghanistan   Grenada   Pakistan
Albania   Guatemala   Papua New Guinea
Algeria   Guinea   Paraguay
Angola   Guinea-Bissau   Peru
Armenia   Guyana   Phillippines
Azerbaijan   Haiti   Rwanda
Bangladesh   Honduras   Samoa
Belarus   India   Sao Tome & Principe
Belize   Indonesia   Senegal
Benin   Iran   Serbia
Bhutan   Iraq   Sierra Leone
Bolivia   Jordan   Solomon Islands
Bosnia & Herzegovina   Jamaica   Somalia
Botswana   Kenya   South Africa
Bulgaria   Kiribati   South Sudan
Burkina Faso   Korea, Dem Rep (North)   Sri Lanka
Burundi   Kosovo   St Lucia
Cambodia   Kyrgyzstan   St Vincent & Grenadines
Cameroon   Laos\Lao PDR   Sudan
Cape Verde   Lesotho   Swaziland
Central African Republic   Liberia   Syria
Chad   Macedonia   Tajikistan
China   Madagascar   Tanzania
Colombia   Malawi   Thailand
Comoros   Maldives   Timor-Leste
Congo, Dem. Rep.   Mali   Togo
Congo, Republic of   Marshall Islands   Tonga
Cote d'Ivoire   Mauritania   Tunisia
Djibouti   Micronesia, Fed. Sts.   Turkmenistan
Dominica   Moldova   Tuvalu
Domicican Republic   Mongolia   Uganda
Ecuador   Montenegro   Ukraine
Egypt   Morocco   Uzbekistan
El Salvador   Mozambique   Vanuatu
Eritrea   Myanmar   Vietnam
Ethiopia   Namibia   West Bank & Gaza
Fiji   Nepal   Yemen
Gambia, The   Nicaragua   Zambia
Georgia   Niger   Zimbabwe
Ghana   Nigeria    

Legacy Collection 2
Radiology Logo
RadioGraphics Logo 
Tier 1

  • Bed count: 1-400
  • Associate College: Community, Technical, Further Education (UK), Tribal College
  • Community Public Library (small scale): general reference public library, museum, non-profit administration office

Tier 2

  • Bed count: 401-750
  • Baccalaureate College or University: Bachelor's is the highest degree offered
  • Master's College or University: Master's is the highest degree offered
  • Special Focus Institution: theological seminaries, Bible colleges, engineering, technological, business, management, art, music, design, law

Tier 3

  • Bedcount: 751-1,000
  • Research University: high or very high research activity without affiliated medical school
  • Health Profession School: non-medical, but health focused

Tier 4

  • Bed count: 1,001 +
  • Medical School: research universities with medical school, including medical centers

Tier 5

  • Consortia: academic, medical libraries, affiliated hospitals, regional libraries and other networks
  • Corporate
  • Government Agency and Ministry
  • Hospital System
  • Private Practice
  • Research Institute: government and non-government health research
  • State or National Public Library
  • Professional Society: trade unions, industry trade association, lobbying organization